Surface Counseling is a problem-solving and decision-making process that adults can use with youths who have day-to-day personal problems. Embedded in the process is a strategy that youths can learn to use independently.

In studies, before studying this manual, teachers performed an average of 23 percent of surface-counseling skills in sessions in which they counseled youths. After reading the manual, answering study-guide questions, and listening to an audio-tape of a surface-counseling session, they performed an average of 93 percent of the skills.



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