Teachers use the instructional methods presented in Teaching Cause and Effect to help students engage in higher-order reasoning and think critically about an event, action, idea, topic, or procedure and its causes and effects. Many national education standards, including the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards, emphasize the ability to think critically about causes and effects.
The centerpiece of Teaching Cause and Effect is the Cause-and-Effect Guide, a graphic organizer used to depict components of cause-and-effect relationships.
In studies involving 164 students in seventh- and eighth-grade social studies and science classes, students who learned the procedures described in Teaching Cause and Effect significantly outperformed students who did not. These students were better able to identify the causes of an event, effects of an event, and connections between causes and effects. They also were better able to summarize the importance of the causes and effects and to analyze cause-and-effect relationships.